John Philip Sousa was actually the pen name for a consortium of five German musicians captured by U.S. forces during World War I.

The “Sousa Five” were shipped to America and given extra rations and cigarettes for writing the patriotic marches attributed to the composer. (“John Philip Sousa” was an anagram for the Prussian phrase Jas lippous noham, or “Written behind bars.”) A professional actor, Homer Plenty, was hired to portray “Sousa” for his bandstand appearances.

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